Saturday, September 19, 2009
In 1938, Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose a self-proclaimed nationalist became leader of the Indian Nationalist Party. The purpose of the Nationalist Party was to expel the British forces from India by whatever means available.
Indische Freiwilligen-Legion 950.
Meanwhile in North Africa, the entire British 3rd Motorized Brigade, composed of Indian personnel was taken as prisoners of war (POW). On 15 May 1941, a German intelligence airforce officer was sent to the POW Camp for the purpose of recruiting English speaking Indian troops. The German officer managed to convince 27 Indian Officers to fly towards Berlin. These 27 officers and Indian residents living in Germany meet with the Indian Leader Subhas Chandra Bose where they discussed the propaganda value of recruiting and forming of the Azad Hind or Indian Legion.
Indian Volunteers in other Axis formations
The German Branderburgers and agents recruited men from the Indian Legion. The Indian volunteers were incorporated as part of 4th Regiment, 800.Bau Lehrdivision zur Besonderen Verwendung Branderburg" (800th Special Purpose Construction Training Division Brandenburg). They were quartered at Meseritz, where they were trained in parachuting and sabotage operations. In January 1942, 100 Indian airborne troops were launched into eastern Iran in order to infiltrate into India through Baluchistan and start sabotage operations against the British. Oberleutnant Witzel in Afghanistan reported to the Abwehr that the Indian landing had been successful. Eventually the operation was disbanded.
In February 1943, the German postal service in collaboration with the Hindu leader Bose printed propaganda stamps honoring the Azad Hind movement. The designers for the Indian Legion stamps were two of Germany's top artist, whose names were Werner and Maria von Axter-Heudtlass. Bose himself met with Maria von Axter-Heudtlass to approve certain designs.
Indian Legion Stamps
The stamps show six themes to be depicted on ten denominations. Three were regulars and the rest semi-postals:
Tuesday, September 15, 2009
Swine flu vaccine (Getty Images)
According to Director of Indian Council of Health Research (ICMR), V M Katoch, any vaccine which is introduced in India will have to be tested on the Indian population as any side effects which the vaccine might have will be compounded.
Katoch's remarks came in the backdrop of reports of a single shot vaccine which is expected to be welcomed by health authorities because it means more people can be protected as quickly as the vaccine becomes available.
A recent study by researchers at CSL Ltd, a global vaccine and plasma protein company with its headquarters in Australia, showed that a single jab fo vaccine might be enough to produce strong antibodies in the body to fight the disease.
The researchers report early results of an ongoing trial that is evaluating a two-dose vaccine in healthy adults between the ages of 18 and 64 at a single site in Australia.
The study was published in the latest issue of the New England Journal of Medicine.
The findings suggest that one dose was enough to produce an immunogenic response, with "mild to moderate" side effects.
They also reported that the vaccine appears to have side effects similar to seasonal flu vaccines.
Black HolesBlack holes are the evolutionary endpoints of stars at least 10 to 15 times as massive as the Sun. If a star that massive or larger undergoes a supernova explosion, it may leave behind a fairly massive burned out stellar remnant. With no outward forces to oppose gravitational forces, the remnant will collapse in on itself. The star eventually collapses to the point of zero volume and infinite density, creating what is known as a " singularity ". As the density increases, the path of light rays emitted from the star are bent and eventually wrapped irrevocably around the star. Any emitted photons are trapped into an orbit by the intense gravitational field; they will never leave it. Because no light escapes after the star reaches this infinite density, it is called a black hole.
But contrary to popular myth, a black hole is not a cosmic vacuum cleaner. If our Sun was suddenly replaced with a black hole of the same mass, the Earth's orbit around the Sun would be unchanged. (Of course the Earth's temperature would change, and there would be no solar wind or solar magnetic storms affecting us.) To be "sucked" into a black hole, one has to cross inside the Schwarzschild radius. At this radius, the escape speed is equal to the speed of light, and once light passes through, even it cannot escape.
The Schwarzschild radius can be calculated using the equation for escape speed:
If We Can't See Them, How Do We Know They're There?
Since stellar black holes are small (only a few to a few tens of kilometers in size), and light that would allow us to see them cannot escape, a black hole floating alone in space would be hard, if not impossible, to see. For instance, the photograph above shows the optical companion star to the (invisible) black hole candidate Cyg X-1.
However, if a black hole passes through a cloud of interstellar matter, or is close to another "normal" star, the black hole can accrete matter into itself. As the matter falls or is pulled towards the black hole, it gains kinetic energy, heats up and is squeezed by tidal forces. The heating ionizes the atoms, and when the atoms reach a few million Kelvin, they emit X-rays. The X-rays are sent off into space before the matter crosses the Schwarzschild radius and crashes into the singularity. Thus we can see this X-ray emission.
Binary X-ray sources are also places to find strong black hole candidates. A companion star is a perfect source of infalling material for a black hole. A binary system also allows the calculation of the black hole candidate's mass. Once the mass is found, it can be determined if the candidate is a neutron star or a black hole, since neutron stars always have masses of about 1.5 times the mass of the Sun. Another sign of the presence of a black hole is its random variation of emitted X-rays. The infalling matter that emits X-rays does not fall into the black hole at a steady rate, but rather more sporadically, which causes an observable variation in X-ray intensity. Additionally, if the X-ray source is in a binary system, and we see it from certain angles, the X-rays will be periodically cut off as the source is eclipsed by the companion star. When looking for black hole candidates, all these things are taken into account. Many X-ray satellites have scanned the skies for X-ray sources that might be black hole candidates.
Cygnus X-1 (Cyg X-1) is the longest known of the black hole candidates. It is a highly variable and irregular source, with X-ray emission that flickers in hundredths of a second. An object cannot flicker faster than the time required for light to travel across the object. In a hundredth of a second, light travels 3,000 kilometers. This is one fourth of Earth's diameter! So the region emitting the X-rays around Cyg X-1 is rather small. Its companion star, HDE 226868 is a B0 supergiant with a surface temperature of about 31,000 K. Spectroscopic observations show that the spectral lines of HDE 226868 shift back and forth with a period of 5.6 days. From the mass-luminosity relation, the mass of this supergiant is calculated as 30 times the mass of the Sun. Cyg X-1 must have a mass of about 7 solar masses, or else it would not exert enough gravitational pull to cause the wobble in the spectral lines of HDE 226868. Since 7 solar masses is too large to be a white dwarf or neutron star, it must be a black hole.
However, there are arguments against Cyg X-1 being a black hole. HDE 226868 might be undermassive for its spectral type, which would make Cyg X-1 less massive than previously calculated. In addition, uncertainties in the distance to the binary system would also influence mass calculations. All of these uncertainties can make a case for Cyg X-1 having only 3 solar masses, thus allowing for the possibility that it is a neutron star.
Nonetheless, there are now about 20 binaries (as of early 2009) for which the evidence for a black hole is much stronger than in Cyg X-1. The first of these, an X-ray transient called A0620-00, was discovered in 1975, and the mass of the compact object was determined in the mid-1980's to be greater than 3.5 solar masses. This very clearly excludes a neutron star, which has a mass near 1.5 solar masses, even allowing for all known theoretical uncertainties. The best case for a black hole is probably V404 Cygni, whose compact star is at least 10 solar masses. With improved instrumentation, the pace of discovery has accelerated, and the list of dynamically confirmed black hole binaries is growing rapidly.
Saturday, September 12, 2009
Friendship is the mutually cooperative and supportive behavior between two or more people. In this sense, the term connotes a relationship which involves mutual knowledge, esteem, affection, and respect along with a degree of rendering service to friends in times of need or crisis. Friends will welcome each other's company and exhibit loyalty towards each other, often to the point of altruism. Their tastes will usually be similar and may converge, and they will share enjoyable activities. They will also engage in mutually helping behavior, such as the exchange of advice and the sharing of hardship. A friend is someone who may often demonstrate reciprocating and reflective behaviors. Yet for some, the practical execution of friendship is little more than the trust that someone will not harm them.
Nandamuri Taraka Rama Rao ( నందమూరి తారక రామా రావు) (born Nimmakuru, Krishna District, Andhra Pradesh; 28 May 1923–18 January 1996), also known as NTR, was an actor, director, producer, and politician. He is the founder of Telugu Desam Party and served as Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh. He was awarded the Padma Shri by the Government of India in 1968, recognizing his contribution to Telugu cinema. After his career in movies, Rao became a political activist and a political party leader. He is known as an advocate of Andhra Pradesh's distinct cultural identity, distinguishing it from Madras State with which it was often associated
Career as an actor
He started his career playing a police inspector in the movie Mana Desam (1949). He portrayed Lord Krishna in Maya Bazaar, Sri Krishnaarjuna Yuddham, Dana Veera Sura Karna), Lord Rama (Lava Kusa), Bheeshma (Bheeshma), Ravana (Bhookailasa), and Arjuna (Nartanasala).
Generally, he played multiple roles in the same movie.
Rao's formal academic training was in Telugu literature under the tutelage of Dr. Vishwanatha Satyanaraya. Rao authored several literary works including screen plays, treatise on the meaning of various puranas. During the making of Narthanasala, Rao was trained in classical Kuchipudi and Rudra Natyam under the tutelage Dr. Vempati Satyam. Rao and Satyam created various classical mudras (poses and manarisms) for male dancers..
He actively campaigned for the construction of a large number of movie theaters in rural locations and was influential in designing and implementing a financial system that funded the production and distribution of movies.
Rao produced five movies after he formally retired from the movie industry during the five years he was voted out of power. These movies "Major Chandrakanth", "Samrat Ashoka", "Srimad virat veerabramhendra swami charita", "Srinadha Kavi Samrat", "Vishwamitra"
Telugu Desam Party
In 1982, Rao set about campaigning with his newly-formed party Telugu Desam Party. His theme of the campaign was that "If the Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh couldn't get audience with Delhi, How could a commoner get to make his voice heard?" He defeated the Indian National Congress. Rao himself contested elections from the constituency of Hindupur in Anantapur District and Gudivada in Krishna district.
With a victory in the immediate election, Rama Rao formed a government and ruled the state of Andhra Pradesh for a full term. He went into the elections with the slogan Telugu vari Atma Gauravam, "Telugu people's self-respect." In his rule he also passed the law which gives equal rights to daughters for the inheritance of ancestral property.
On Independence day, August 15, 1984, Rao was removed from office by Ramlal, then governor of Andhra Pradesh, after a revolt by his aide, Nadendla Bhaskara Rao, while Rama Rao was in the United States for open heart surgery. Rao launched his "chaitanya ratham" ("back to the people agitation") on the third day after his surgery. Prime Minister of India Indira Gandhi dismissed Ramlal and appointed Shankar Dayal Sharma in his place. Nadendla Bhaskara Rao could not establish majority in the assembly in one month's time, and Sharma handed power back to Rama Rao, who dissolved the Andhra Pradesh State Assembly and asked for a fresh mandate in 1985.
On his return to power, Rao abolished the Legislative Council of Andhra Pradesh, claiming it was a non-performing body which was just a burden on the state exchequer. He introduced management reforms that held corrupt government offices accountable to elected representatives.He changed the donation system for engineering and medical institutes and introduced EAMCET. He removed the grace mark system for high schools. He made it illegal for government college lecturers offering private tuitions.
Rao created a new commando force for the state He divested non-performing Allwyn State Manufacturing enterprise by selling it to Mahindra Machines.
Rao started low-income housing project and built 500,000 houses in five years to replace thached houses. The program continued for nine more years under his successor Naidu and added another 1 Million homes. The program continues to this day under Reddy's govt building another 300,000 houses under Reddy's five year term.
He built the largest bus station in Asia, commissioned the largest Buddha statue in the world at the time to highlight the Buddhist heritage and history of Andhra. He adorned 'Tank Bund' with the statues of literary personalities, warriors and kings of the past, thus creating a sense of heritage.
The Telugu Desam Party operations were significantly computerized and a systematic local party structure was built and this resulted in the establishment of a stable second political party that survived his death. Rao introduced the concept of strong states with strong center in his discussions about state power with Gandhi and ushered in a new era of empowered local governments, within the framework of India. The long held belief that strong states imply a weak and collapsing country is no more a political dogma that governs center state relations in India. He also lobbied and won the amendment of Hindu inheritance laws to give women equal rights in inheritance.
He suffered a mild stroke and was unable to campaign in the 1989 election, which he lost.
He returned again to power in 1994 when he promised he would offer rice at Rs. 2/kg and to make Andhra Pradesh alcohol free.
He introduced Rs2/kg rice program. This social net program was later extended to include free food for primary school children in government schools for the same income group and that scheme encouraged the single biggest drop in child labor and increase in primary school enrollment. .
Rao was involved in creating the major state subsidies like free bachelors degree education, free rail tickets for railway employees, free telephones for telecommunication employees, free electricity for electricity employees, free medical care for medical employees, free loans for bank employees, free housing for govt employees were until that date targeted at the rich and the new social net programs aimed at the poorest and the most hard working of the poor.
Rao directed his tourism department to invest heavily into restructuring Tirupathi, Tirumala and Amaravathi into tourist destinations and into spiritual capitals of Andhra.
Second Breakup of the TDP
In 1995, his son-in-law, Nara Chandrababu Naidu split Rao's party after Rao won by a land slide. Naidu convinced most of the TDP legislators to elect him as their leader, making him the chief minister.
Rao's first marriage was to Basavatarakam; after her death[when?] he married Lakshmi Parvathi (who established NTR TDP). He had seven sons and four daughters including Bhuvaneswari, wife of Nara Chandrababu Naidu (the vice-chairperson of Heritage Foods); and Daggubati Purandeswari, MP for the Indian National Congress Party and wife of Daggubati Venkateswara Rao. His son Nandamuri Balakrishna is an actor in the Telugu film industry; and Nandamuri Harikrishna, an actor and politician. He has several grandchildren, including N. Kalyan Ram, N. T. Rama Rao Jr.
N.T. Rama Rao died on 18 January 1996 of a heart attack.
- ^ http://www.odi.org.uk/resources/download/1997.pdf
- ^ a b http://www.lakehouse.lk/mihintalava/gaya02.htm
- ^ http://www.kutcheribuzz.com/features/column/vempattikuchipudifest.asp
- ^ http://www.cinegoer.com/narthanasala.htm
- ^ http://www.allmovie.com/artist/nt-rama-rao-237184
- ^ "NTR - The architect of Telugu’s “Aatma Gauravam”". 123telugu.com. http://www.123telugu.com/news/May09/NTR_architect_Telugu_Aatma_Gauravam_28050904.html.
- ^ http://www.jstor.org/pss/2644703
- ^ http://www.indiaglitz.com/channels/telugu/article/38873.html
- ^ a b http://us.rediff.com/news/1999/jan/14ap.htm
- ^ http://www.reachouthyderabad.com/historical.htm
- ^ http://www.independent.co.uk/news/people/obituary-n-t-rama-rao-1324748.html
- ^ http://dlc.dlib.indiana.edu/archive/00001091/00/Craig_Johnson_-_Grounding_the_state.pdf
- ^ http://www.worldbank.org.in/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/SOUTHASIAEXT/INDIAEXTN/0,,contentMDK:20970681~pagePK:141137~piPK:141127~theSitePK:295584,00.html
- ^ http://www.nytimes.com/1996/01/19/world/n-t-rama-rao-72-is-dead-star-status-infused-his-politics.html
- ^ # ^ http://us.rediff.com/news/1999/jan/14ap.htm
Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam அவுல் பகீர் ஜைனுலாப்தீன் அப்துல் கலாம், born October 15, 1931, Tamil Nadu, India, usually referred to as Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam was the eleventh President of India, serving from 2002 to 2007. During his term as The President, he was popularly known as the People's President
Before his term as India's president, he worked as an aeronautical engineer with DRDO and ISRO. He is popularly known as the Missile Man of India for his work on development of ballistic missile and space rocket technology.In India he is highly respected as a scientist and as an engineer.
Kalam played a pivotal organisational, technical and political role in India's Pokhran-II nuclear test in 1998, the first since the original nuclear test by India in 1974He is a professor at Anna University (Chennai) and adjunct/visiting faculty at many other academic and research institutions across India.
With the death of R. Venkataraman on January 27, 2009, Kalam became the only surviving former President of India.
APJ Abdul Kalam views on certain issues have been espoused by him in his book India 2020 where he strongly advocates an action plan to develop India into a knowledge superpower and into a developed nation by the year 2020. Kalam is credited with the view that India ought to take a more assertive stance in international relations; he regards his work on India's nuclear weapons program as a way to assert India's place as a future superpower.
Kalam continues to take an active interest in other developments in the field of science and technology as well. He has proposed a research programme for developing bio-implants. He is a supporter of Open source software over proprietary solutions and believes that the use of open source software on a large scale will bring more people the benefits of information technology .
Kalam's belief in the power of science to resolve society's problems and his views of these problems as a result of inefficient distribution of resources is modernistic. He also sees science and technology as ideology-free areas and emphasises the cultivation of scientific temper and entrepreneurial drive. In this, he finds a lot of support among India's new business leaders like the founders of Infosys and Wipro, (leading Indian IT corporations) who began their careers as technology professionals much in the same way Kalam did.
Kalam's father was a devout Muslim, who owned boats which he rented out to local fishermen and was a good friend of Hindu religious leaders and the school teachers at Rameshwaram. APJ Abdul Kalam mentions in his biography that to support his studies, he started his career as a newspaper vendor. This was also told in the book, A Boy and His Dream: Three Stories from the Childhood of Abdul Kalam by Vinita Krishna. The house Kalam was born in can still be found on the Mosque street in Rameshwaram, and his brother's curio shop abuts it. This has become a point-of-call for tourists who seek out the place. Kalam grew up in an intimate relationship with nature, and he says in Wings of Fire that he never could imagine that water could be so powerful a destroying force as that he witnessed when he was thirty three. That was in 1964 when a cyclonic storm swept away the Pamban bridge and a trainload of passengers with it and also Kalam's native village, Dhanushkodi.
He is a scholar of Thirukkural; in most of his speeches, he quotes at least one kural. Kalam has written several inspirational books, most notably his autobiography Wings of Fire, aimed at motivating Indian youth. Another of his books, Guiding Souls: Dialogues on the Purpose of Life reveals his spiritual side. He has written poems in Tamil as well. It has been reported that there is considerable demand in South Korea for translated versions of books authored by him.
Kalam has also patronised grassroots innovations. He is closely associated with the Honey Bee Network and The National innovation Foundation. The NIF is a body of Government of India and operates from Ahmadabad, Gujrat. He respects all religions, including Sikhism and Hinduism.
Kalam as an engineer
Abdul Kalam graduated from Madras Institute of Technology majoring in Aeronautical Engineering. As the Project Director, he was heavily involved in the development of India's first indigenous Satellite Launch Vehicle (SLV-III). As Chief Executive of Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme (IGMDP), he also played a major part in developing many missiles of India including Agni and Prithvi. Although the entire project has been criticised for being overrun and mismanaged. He was the Chief Scientific Adviser to Defence Minister and Secretary, Department of Defence Research & Development from July 1992 to December 1999. Pokhran-II nuclear tests were conducted during this period, led by him.
He is one of those scientists who aims at putting technology created by him to multiple use. He used the light weight carbon-compound material designed for Agni to make callipers for the polio affected. This carbon composite material reduced the weight of the calipers to 400 grams (from its original weight of 4kgs.) Nizam's Institute of Medical Sciences (NIMS, Hyderabad) was the birthplace for the defence technology spin offs from Kalam's labs via the DRDL (Defence Research and Development Laboratory), DMRL (Defence Metallurgical Research Lab) and the RCI (Research Centre Imarat). Addressing a conference at Athens, Greece, Kalam told that "Seeing the children run with lighter callipers brought tears to the eyes of their parents. That was the real moment of bliss for me".
Books and documentaries
- Kalam's writings
- Wings of Fire: An Autobiography of APJ Abdul Kalam by A.P.J Abdul Kalam, Arun Tiwari; by K. Bhushan, G. Katyal; A.P.H. Pub. Corp, 2002.
- Scientist to President by Abdul A.P.J. Kalam; Gyan Publishing House, 2003.
- Ignited Minds: Unleashing the Power Within India by A.P.J. Abdul Kalam; Penguin Books, 2003.
- India 2020: A Vision for the New Millennium by A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, Y.S. Rajan; Penguin Books India, 2003.
- India-my-dream by A.P.J. Abdul Kalam; Excel Books, 2004.
- Envisioning an Empowered Nation: Technology for Societal Transformation by A.P.J. Abdul Kalam; TATA McGraw-Hill Publishing Company Ltd, 2004.
- Guiding Souls: Dialogues on the Purpose of Life by A.P.J. Abdul Kalam, Arun K Tiwari; Ocean Books, 2005.
- Children Ask Kalam by A.P.J Abdul Kalam; Pearson Education,
- Eternal Quest: Life and Times of Dr. Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam by S. Chandra; Pentagon Publishers, 2002.
- President A.P.J. Abdul Kalam by R. K. Pruthi; Anmol Publications, 2002.
- A. P. J. Abdul Kalam: The Visionary of India' by K. Bhushan, G. Katyal; A.P.H. Pub. Corp, 2002.
- A little Dream' (documentary film) by P. Dhanapal; Minveli Media Works Private Limited, 2008.
- The Kalam Effect: My Years with the President by P.M. Nair; Harper Collins, 2008.
- ^ A Brief Biography of Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam
- ^ a b "Former presidents". Government of India. http://presidentofindia.nic.in/formerpresidents.html.
- ^ "Kalam was real people's President: President's bodyguards". Hindustan Times. 2007-07-24. http://www.hindustantimes.com/StoryPage/FullcoverageStoryPage.aspx?id=d1dfada8-d9b3-4783-ad6a-44f56165dd9fWho%20will%20be%20India%27s%20next%20President_Special. Retrieved 2009-03-27.
- ^ Perappadan, Bindu Shajan (2007-04-14). "The people's President does it again". The Hindu. http://www.hindu.com/2007/04/14/stories/2007041411130100.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-27.
- ^ Pruthi, R. K. (2002). "Ch. 4. Missile Man of India". President A.P.J. Abdul Kalam. Anmol Publication. pp. 61–76. ISBN 978-8126113446. http://books.google.com/books?id=Ee3PR5HFBCAC&.
- ^ Sen, Amartya (2003). "India and the Bomb". in M. V. Ramana and C. Rammanohar Reddy. Prisoners of the Nuclear Dream. Sangam Book. pp. 167–188. ISBN 978-8125024774. http://books.google.com/books?id=IjZA-bQde1wC&pg=RA1-PA169&.
- ^ "Inda leader advocates open source". http://news.cnet.com/India-leader-advocates-open-source/2100-1016_3-1011255.html.
- ^ "Kalam, the author catching on in South Korea". http://www.outlookindia.com/pti_news.asp?id=354077.
- ^ http://www.lehigh.edu/~amsp/2004/06/profile-of-indias-president-apj-abdul.html
- ^ "Missile plan: Some hits, misses". http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/Missile_plan_Some_hits_misses/articleshow/2684641.cms.
- ^ Picture from Wikipedia accessed June 2007
- ^ http://presidentofindia.nic.in/scripts/thepresident.jsp
- ^ Former President Kalam chosen for Hoover Medal,27 Mar 2009,Times of India 
- ^ "Documentary on Kalam released". The Hindu. 2008-01-12. http://www.hindu.com/2008/01/25/stories/2008012550520200.htm. Retrieved 2009-03-27.
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